India Kerala shrimp and cephalopods - trawl

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This FIP concentrates on the stocks of the following species: Karikkadi shrimp (Parapenaeopsis stylifera), Poovalan shrimp (Metapenaeus dobsoni), cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis), squid (Uroteuthis duvaucelli), and octopus (Amphioctopus neglectus, A. marginatus). For the pre-assessment, the management unit is the stock of these five species found in Kerala coastal waters. 

The fishing gear for this FIP is trawls. The fishery is a mixed fishery, targeting shrimp, cephalopods and fish. Shrimp trawls use a different (smaller) cod-end to the fish and cephalopod trawls (see regulations below). The cephalopod trawl uses the same mesh size as the fish trawl but is reportedly rigged slightly off-bottom, by adjusting the rigging of doors; in fact, it is rigged somewhat differently for each target species of cephalopod. Cephalopods are also targeted in shrimp trawls rigged to have a high opening. Vessels may carry several trawls on board. Fishing trips last three to four days at the beginning of the season (August/Sept) and can increase up to 15 days later in the season (April/May), depending on the storage, ice and fuel capacity of the vessel.

The responsibility for marine fisheries in India is shared between the National (Central) and State governments. The national legal framework in India gives individual States control of the seas and living marine resources up to 12 nautical miles (nm) from the shore, while the Central Government has control from 12 nm to the 200 nm exclusive economic zone (EEZ) boundary. Although this fishery operates inside and outside 12 nm, management jurisdiction in practice is with the Kerala fisheries department. There is however a potential for the stocks under assessment to be shared with neighbouring states, i.e., Karnataka, and also the central government, if the stocks’ ranges extend past the 12 nm demarcation.

According to the World Bank (2010) report, there are five major legal instruments of the Central government that directly govern marine fisheries and activities:

  • The Indian Fisheries Act, 1897;
  • Marine Products Export Development Authority Act 1972 (No. 13 of 1972);
  • The Maritime Zones of India (Regulation of fishing by foreign vessels) Act, 1981 (No. 42 of 1981);
  • The Maritime Zones of India (Regulation of fishing by foreign vessels) Rules, 1982;
  • The Operation of Deep Sea Fishing Vessels, 20m OAL and above, Notifications dated 14 December 2006.

State legislation is based on a model Act prepared by the central government in 1979 (World Bank, 2010) with each State developing its own marine fisheries legislation to manage fisheries in their respective area. In Kerala State, fisheries management is guided by the Kerala Marine Fishing Regulation Act, 1980 (KMFR Act). It was amended in 2017 and is in the process of being implemented across the State.

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FIP Description 

This FIP concentrates on the stocks of the following species: Karikkadi shrimp (Parapenaeopsis stylifera), Poovalan shrimp (Metapenaeus dobsoni), cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis), squid (Uroteu

FIP Objective(s) 

Achieve MSC certification by 2024.

FIP Type 
FIP Stage 
Stage 3: FIP Implementation
Start and Projected End Dates
February 2019
February 2024
Next Progress Report Due 
Thursday, September 30, 2021
Common Name 
Kiddi Prawn
Scientific Name
Parapenaeopsis stylifera
Common Name 
Flower Tail Shrimp
Scientific Name
Metapenaeus dobsoni
Common Name 
Neglected Octopus
Scientific Name
Amphioctopus neglectus
Common Name 
Indian Squid
Scientific Name
Uroteuthis duvaucelli
Common Name 
Pharaoh Cuttlefish
Scientific Name
Sepia pharaonis
Gear Type 
FAO Major Fishing Area
Area 51 (Indian Ocean, Western)
Exclusive Economic Zones
Geographic Scope 
Kerala, South-West region of India
Estimated Total FIP Landings 
37,796 metric tons
Estimated Total Fishery Landings 
65,399 metric tons
Landings Date 
March 2019

FIP at a Glance

46% 25% 25% 4%
February 01, 2019
46% 25% 25% 4%
Progress Rating

A - Advanced Progress
Reserved for comprehensive FIPs that have a Stage 4 or 5 result within the past 12 months.

B - Good Progress
A FIP that has achieved a Stage 4 or 5 in more than 12 months AND Stage 3 activity in the last year; OR a basic FIP that has achieved Stage 4 or 5 achievements within the past 12 months.

C - Some Recent Progress
A FIP that has achieved a Stage 4 or 5 result in more than 12 (but less than 24) months but has not generated a Stage 3 result within the past 12 months OR a FIP younger than a year that has never achieved a Stage 4 or 5 result but has completed a Stage 3 activity.

D - Some Past Progress
A FIP for which the most recent publicly reported Stage 4 or 5 result is more than 24 (but less than 30) months.

E - Negligible Progress
A FIP older than a year that has not reported a Stage 4 or 5 result in more than 30 month (but less than 36) months; OR a FIP younger than 1 year that has not reported a Stage 3 activity.

The ratings are currently derived by SFP from publicly available data on FIP websites, including, and are determined using the following methodology: View PDF
C Some Recent Progress
Actions Complete

This pie chart represents completed environmental actions. Non-completed environmental actions may contain completed sub-tasks that are not illustrated here. For more information on environmental action progress visit the Actions Progress tab.

  • Complete
  • Incomplete
Next Update Due FisheryProgress requires a FIP to provide update reports every six months, and two missed reports will render the FIP inactive. If a report is overdue, this date will appear red.
Sep 2021
Target End Date
Feb 2024
Additional Impacts:

FIP Leads

Organization Name 
Seafood Exporters Association of India - Kerala Forum for Crustacean and Cephalopod Sustainability(SEAI-KFCCS)
Organization Type 
Primary Contact 
A J Tharakan
FIP Identification Number The FIP Identification Number is automatically generated by FisheryProgress when a FIP profile is created. While the number itself is not meaningful, they are used by NGOs, academia, and industry to refer to FIPs in a consistent way.