Indonesia deepwater groundfish - dropline, longline, trap and gillnet

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Overview

The Indonesian groundfish fishery comprise 4 fishing methods, drop-line and long-line, trap and gill-net. There are anestimated significant, with an estimated 9,924 licensed vessels  operating throughout the 11 WWPP zones. These vessels operate across a broad range (i.e. from within the 4-nautical mile baseline the EEZ boundary, and in depths of 50 to 500 m. The fisheries are within FAO Regions 57 (the Eastern Indian Ocean) and 71 (the Western and Central Pacific Ocean).The geographical range is defined as the waters within the meridians of longitude 110° East and 140° West, and 12° South, 4° North. To the North this fishery borders the EEZs of Malaysia and Philippines, to the East, the EEZs of Papua New Guinea and East Timor, and Australia to the South.

Long-line comprises short lines carrying hooks that are attached to a longer main line at regular intervals (FAO). Longlines are laid on the bottom at depths of 50 to 150 m, with the help of small anchors or weights, and marked at the surface with flagged buoys. The lines deployed in the groundfish fishery are estimated to be between 200 to 500 hooks per set, depending on vessels size (Mous, pers com, September 2017). The bottom long-liners fish on the shelf area as well as on the top of the slopes that drop into deeper waters. Bottom long line fishing for snappers and co-occurring species is done with vessels ranging from smaller than 5 GT up to around 100 GT in Indonesian waters.

Drop-lining comprises a main line with one to 10 hooks and a weight (Mous, ibid.), held vertically in the water by hand (handline) or by manual reel. Several droplines may be operated by one fishermen or one vessel (FAO). Drop line fishers target snappers and other demersal species around structures and slopes throughout Indonesia from depths of around 30 to 50 meters on continental shelf areas, to deep slopes and seamounts 50 to 500 meters deep. Drop liners deployed in this fishery range in size from simple canoes to vessels more than 30 GT.

Trap and Gill-net fishing for snappers, groupers, emperors and co-occurring species is less widespread than the use of long line and drop line and is often done in a mixed fishery where hook and line methods are used simultaneously with the traps or gillnets. Commonly used deep water traps for snappers and groupers are made of metal frames and wiring, with the trap cages around 1.5 meters long and wide and about 0.5 to 1 meter high. Traps are usually baited and positioned near structures which are known aggregation sites for target species. Bottom gillnets are set horizontally near structures on continental shelf areas but also vertically along steep slopes and reef drop-offs, with one end tied off to rocks or coral heads on reef tops and the other end weighted and dropped several hundred meters deep, by stretching the net away from the reef over deep water before dropping it.

The size of vessels in this fishery include a broad range of vessels, including < 5 GT to > 30 GT. Fishers are licensed by permit system with MMAF responsible for licensing vessels > 30 GT, Dinas Perikanan Province, for vessels between 5 to 30 GT, and Dinas districts, for all vessels under 5 GT. Vessels are licensed annually, according to broad definitions of fishing method. However, the method and target species for vessels less than 5 GT may change according to availability of the target species. Larger vessels are known to move long distances and into different jurisdictional area, in which case, they will be required to hold several licenses. Vessels over 30 GT are only allowed to hold two concurrent WPP licenses. 

The stock assessment programme comprises a number of proxy assessments of the multi-species deepwater dropline and longline fisheries targeting snappers, groupers, emperors, and grunters, located at depths ranging from 50 to 500 metres. These proxy assessments are identified as reasonable proxies of stock biomass for the Point of Recruitment Impairment (PRI) and/or Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY). There are 82 individual Units of Assessment (UoA), representing 90% of the total species numbers in the dropline fishery and 90% in the longline fishery. The expectation is that the 82 UoAs, will be separated between dropline-caught species by. management area, with each area representing single stocks. Many, of these species occur in both fisheries and in each management area.

There is presently no harvest strategy applied to these fisheries by the management authority, the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF).

The following FIP development priorities have been identified:

MSC Principle 1

Using a suite of proxies, development of agreed Performance Indicators and Reference Points to define stock status based on existing data sets (e.g. fishery-independent surveys)

Provide a sufficiently robust estimate of the removals from each stock by Indonesian fisheries other than the sub-fisheries under assessment 

Development of a harvest strategy which is responsive to the state of the stock and the elements of the harvest strategy work together towards achieving the stock management objectives of each target species fluctuating around a level consistent with MSY. 

MSC Principle 2

Provide a comprehensive table on other species catches, taken by each sub-fishery, and relating these numbers to the total catch in each fishery. This requires some elaboration of the data collection system for each of the groundfish fisheries in each WPP . Once collected, the assessment will need to review species caught, their status and vulnerability if between 2-5% of the total catch), and whether the UoA fishery is likely to impact on these stocks. From information gathered to date, this would appear to be quite unlikely.

Review whether ot not the fishery requires a shark finning strategy. Sharks caught represent less than 1% of the total catch of all species.

Review the impact of lost gears on marine habitats.

Implement a policy of non-discarding of waste, or any other synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compoundsfrom fishing vessels.

MSC Principle 3

Implement a fishery specific management plan that identifies short and long-term objectives, which are consistent with achieving the outcomes expressed by MSC’s Principles 1 (stock assessment, harvest strategies) and 2 (ecosystem management). 

Develop a comprehensive decision-making system is in place into the WPP consultative process that includes:

Develop and apply of a compliance strategy for the deepwater snapper and grouper sub-fisheries. 

Ensure that there is a fisheries specific management performance review process in place which is subject to internal and occasional external review.

 

FIP Description 
FIP Objective(s) 

Project Objective

To ensure the long term livelihood of fishers by establishing sustainable resource management for the nation’s groundfish (snapper, grouper, emperor and grunter) fisheries, and supporting preservation of allied ecosystems from which these resources depend (July 2019-June 2023).

Sub objective 1. The application of proxies accepted as an appropriate stock assessment tool for the Indonesian groundfish fishery (July 2019-July 2024).

Sub objective 2. To develop a groundfish fishery harvest strategy (July 2019-Dec 2022)

Sub objective 3. to promote the ecosystem based approach to fisheries management (July 2019-Jan 2023)

Sub objective 4. Fishery specific management objectives applied with the support of a management plan (July 2019-Dec 2021).   

Sub objective 5. WPP decision making structure strengthened to ensure that it responds to fisheries specific requirements (July 2019-Dec 2022).

Sub objective 6. To strengthen compliance systems within the groundfish fishery (July 2019-Dec 2022)

Sub objective 7. Robust chain of custody system operational (July 19-June 2020)

FIP Type 
Comprehensive
FIP Stage 
Stage 4: Improvements in Fishing Practices or Fishery Management
Start and Projected End Dates
July 2019
June 2024
Next Progress Report Due 
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Species 
Common Name 
Goldband Snapper
Scientific Name 
Pristipomoides multidens
Additional Names 
Goldband jobfish, Anggoli putih, Kerisi, Kurisi
Common Name 
Sharptooth Jobfish
Scientific Name 
Pristipomoides typus
Additional Names 
Red-tailed Opakapaka, Anggoli merah, Kurisi Bali, Kerisi
Common Name 
Rusty Jobfish
Scientific Name 
Aphareus rutilans
Additional Names 
Lehi, Kurisi perak, Ikan tajuk, Tariasan
Common Name 
Malabar Snapper
Scientific Name 
Lutjanus malabaricus
Additional Names 
Large-mouth Nannygai, Kakap merah, Kakap asli, Bambangan
Common Name 
Crimson Jobfish
Scientific Name 
Pristipomoides filamentosus
Additional Names 
Opakapaka, Kurisi Bali, Tola, Opaka
Common Name 
Saddleback Snapper
Scientific Name 
Paracaesio kusakarii
Additional Names 
Balimong, Ikan sulir, Pisang-pisang, Lolosi
Common Name 
Crimson Snapper
Scientific Name 
Lutjanus erythropterus
Additional Names 
Small-mouth Nannygai, Bambangan, Nunuk, Kakap sawu
Common Name 
Flame Snapper
Scientific Name 
Etelis coruscans
Additional Names 
Onaga, Anggoli, Ekor panjang, Rahiang
Common Name 
Areolate Grouper
Scientific Name 
Epinephelus areolatus
Additional Names 
Squaretail Rockcod, Kerapu macan, Gerape bandi, Pek be kui
Common Name 
Red Emperor
Scientific Name 
Lutjanus sebae
Additional Names 
Kakap bongkok, Kakap sawu
Common Name 
Grass Emperor
Scientific Name 
Lethrinus laticaudis
Additional Names 
Blue-lined Emperor, Ketambak, Lencam
Common Name 
Blue-lined Emperor
Scientific Name 
Gymnocranius grandoculis
Additional Names 
Blue-lined large-eye Bream, Padi-padi putih, Tambak pasir
Common Name 
Giant Ruby Snapper
Scientific Name 
Etelis sp
Additional Names 
Ehu, Bagong, Kakap pasifik, Saramia
Common Name 
Slender Pinjalo
Scientific Name 
Pinjalo lewisi
Additional Names 
Red pinjalo, Kakap merah, Nunuk
Common Name 
Pale Snapper
Scientific Name 
Etelis radiosis
Additional Names 
Perak merah, Kerisi, Palo-palo
Common Name 
Striped Grouper
Scientific Name 
Epinephelus latifasciatus
Additional Names 
Banded grouper, Kerapu lumpur, Tho khui
Common Name 
Almaco Jack
Scientific Name 
Seriola rivoliana
Additional Names 
Cakal kanang, Kwe batu
Common Name 
Green Jobfish
Scientific Name 
Aprion virescens
Additional Names 
Uku, Guntur, Kurisi hijau
Common Name 
Timor Snapper
Scientific Name 
Lutjanus timorensis
Additional Names 
Bambangan, Kakap Timor
Common Name 
Chinamanfish
Scientific Name 
Symphorus nematophorus
Additional Names 
Kakap China, Markisa, Mamong, Marpisang
Common Name 
Lavendar Jobfish
Scientific Name 
Pristipomoides sieboldii
Additional Names 
Kalekale, Kerisi, Kurisi
Common Name 
Cocoa Snapper
Scientific Name 
Paracaesio stonei
Additional Names 
Stone's snapper, Balimong mata besar, Sulir, Lolosi
Common Name 
Duskytail Grouper
Scientific Name 
Epinephelus bleekeri
Additional Names 
Kerapu, Babunjai
Common Name 
Mozambique Large-eye Bream
Scientific Name 
Wattsia mossambica
Additional Names 
Padi-padi hitam, Padi-padi duri
Common Name 
Painted Sweetlip
Scientific Name 
Diagramma pictum
Additional Names 
Trout sweetlip, Gajih, Raja bau
Gear Type 
Bottom Longline
Dropline
Gillnet
Pot/Trap
Location
FAO Major Fishing Area
Area 57 (Indian Ocean, Eastern)
Area 71 (Pacific, Western Central)
Exclusive Economic Zones
Country 
Indonesia
Country Flag of Vessel 
Indonesia
Regional Fisheries Management Organization
Volume
FIP Volume 
85,230 metric tons
Total Fishery Volume 
85,230 metric tons
Volume Date 
September 2019
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FIP at a Glance

36% 14% 50%
July 01, 2019
36% 18% 46%
Progress Rating

A - Advanced Progress
Reserved for comprehensive FIPs that have a Stage 4 or 5 result within the past 12 months.

B - Good Progress
A FIP that has achieved a Stage 4 or 5 in more than 12 months AND Stage 3 activity in the last year; OR a basic FIP that has achieved Stage 4 or 5 achievements within the past 12 months.

C - Some Recent Progress
A FIP that has achieved a Stage 4 or 5 result in more than 12 (but less than 24) months but has not generated a Stage 3 result within the past 12 months OR a FIP younger than a year that has never achieved a Stage 4 or 5 result but has completed a Stage 3 activity.

D - Some Past Progress
A FIP for which the most recent publicly reported Stage 4 or 5 result is more than 24 (but less than 30) months.

E - Negligible Progress
A FIP older than a year that has not reported a Stage 4 or 5 result in more than 30 month (but less than 36) months; OR a FIP younger than 1 year that has not reported a Stage 3 activity.

The ratings are currently derived by SFP from publicly available data on FIP websites, including FisheryProgress.org, and are determined using the following methodology: View PDF
A Advanced Progress
Actions Complete
  • Complete
  • Incomplete
Next Update Due FisheryProgress requires a FIP to provide update reports every six months, and two missed reports will render the FIP inactive. If a report is overdue, this date will appear red.
Jan 2020
Target End Date
Jun 2024
Some FIPs include objectives that go beyond the 28 indicators. Clicking on the links below will provide additional detail on other impacts the FIP is working to achieve.

FIP Leads

Organization Name 
The Nature Conservancy – Indonesia Fisheries Conservation Program
Organization Type 
NGO
Primary Contact 
Peter Mous
Email 
Phone 
61742042060
Organization Name 
Poseidon ARM PL
Organization Type 
Consultant
Primary Contact 
Richard Banks
Phone 
61742042060
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