Indonesia deepwater groundfish - dropline, longline, trap and gillnet

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Overview

The Indonesian groundfish fishery comprise 4 fishing methods, drop-line and long-line, trap and gill-net. There are an estimated  10,185 licensed vessels  operating throughout the 11 WWPP zones (June, 2020). These vessels operate across a broad range (i.e. from within the 4-nautical mile baseline the EEZ boundary, and in depths of 50 to 500 m. The fisheries are within FAO Regions 57 (the Eastern Indian Ocean) and 71 (the Western and Central Pacific Ocean).The geographical range is defined as the waters within the meridians of longitude 110° East and 140° West, and 12° South, 4° North. To the North this fishery borders the EEZs of Malaysia and Philippines, to the East, the EEZs of Papua New Guinea and East Timor, and Australia to the South.

Long-line comprises short lines carrying hooks that are attached to a longer main line at regular intervals (FAO). Longlines are laid on the bottom at depths of 50 to 150 m, with the help of small anchors or weights, and marked at the surface with flagged buoys. The lines deployed in the groundfish fishery are estimated to be between 200 to 500 hooks per set, depending on vessels size (Mous, pers com, September 2017). The bottom long-liners fish on the shelf area as well as on the top of the slopes that drop into deeper waters. Bottom long line fishing for snappers and co-occurring species is done with vessels ranging from smaller than 5 GT up to around 100 GT in Indonesian waters.

Drop-lining comprises a main line with one to 10 hooks and a weight (Mous, ibid.), held vertically in the water by hand (handline) or by manual reel. Several droplines may be operated by one fishermen or one vessel (FAO). Drop line fishers target snappers and other demersal species around structures and slopes throughout Indonesia from depths of around 30 to 50 meters on continental shelf areas, to deep slopes and seamounts 50 to 500 meters deep. Drop liners deployed in this fishery range in size from simple canoes to vessels more than 30 GT.

Trap and Gill-net fishing for snappers, groupers, emperors and co-occurring species is less widespread than the use of long line and drop line and is often done in a mixed fishery where hook and line methods are used simultaneously with the traps or gillnets. Commonly used deep water traps for snappers and groupers are made of metal frames and wiring, with the trap cages around 1.5 meters long and wide and about 0.5 to 1 meter high. Traps are usually baited and positioned near structures which are known aggregation sites for target species. Bottom gillnets are set horizontally near structures on continental shelf areas but also vertically along steep slopes and reef drop-offs, with one end tied off to rocks or coral heads on reef tops and the other end weighted and dropped several hundred meters deep, by stretching the net away from the reef over deep water before dropping it.

The size of vessels in this fishery include a broad range of vessels, including < 5 GT to > 30 GT. Fishers are licensed by permit system with MMAF responsible for licensing vessels > 30 GT, Dinas Perikanan Province, for vessels between 5 to 30 GT, and Dinas districts, for all vessels under 5 GT. Vessels are licensed annually, according to broad definitions of fishing method. However, the method and target species for vessels less than 5 GT may change according to availability of the target species. Larger vessels are known to move long distances and into different jurisdictional area, in which case, they will be required to hold several licenses. Vessels over 30 GT are only allowed to hold two concurrent WPP licenses. 

The stock assessment programme comprises a number of proxy assessments of the multi-species deepwater dropline and longline fisheries targeting snappers, groupers, emperors, and grunters, located at depths ranging from 50 to 500 metres. These proxy assessments are identified as reasonable proxies of stock biomass for the Point of Recruitment Impairment (PRI) and/or Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY). There are  395 individual Units of Assessment (UoA), representing 90% of the total species numbers in the dropline fishery and 90% in the longline fishery. The expectation is that the 396 UoAs, will be separated between dropline-caught species by. management area, with each area representing single stocks. Many, of these species occur in both fisheries and in each management area.

There is presently no harvest strategy applied to these fisheries by the management authority, the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF).

The following FIP development priorities have been identified:

MSC Principle 1

Using a suite of proxies, development of agreed Performance Indicators and Reference Points to define stock status based on existing data sets (e.g. fishery-independent surveys)

Provide a sufficiently robust estimate of the removals from each stock by Indonesian fisheries other than the sub-fisheries under assessment 

Development of a harvest strategy which is responsive to the state of the stock and the elements of the harvest strategy work together towards achieving the stock management objectives of each target species fluctuating around a level consistent with MSY. 

MSC Principle 2

Provide a comprehensive table on other species catches, taken by each sub-fishery, and relating these numbers to the total catch in each fishery. This requires some elaboration of the data collection system for each of the groundfish fisheries in each WPP . Once collected, the assessment will need to review species caught, their status and vulnerability if between 2-5% of the total catch), and whether the UoA fishery is likely to impact on these stocks. From information gathered to date, this would appear to be quite unlikely.

Review whether ot not the fishery requires a shark finning strategy. Sharks caught represent less than 1% of the total catch of all species.

Review the impact of lost gears on marine habitats.

Implement a policy of non-discarding of waste, or any other synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compoundsfrom fishing vessels.

MSC Principle 3

Implement a fishery specific management plan that identifies short and long-term objectives, which are consistent with achieving the outcomes expressed by MSC’s Principles 1 (stock assessment, harvest strategies) and 2 (ecosystem management). 

Develop a comprehensive decision-making system is in place into the WPP consultative process that includes:

Develop and apply of a compliance strategy for the deepwater snapper and grouper sub-fisheries. 

Ensure that there is a fisheries specific management performance review process in place which is subject to internal and occasional external review.

 

FIP Description 
FIP Objective(s) 

Project Objective

To ensure the long term livelihood of fishers by establishing sustainable resource management for the nation’s groundfish (snapper, grouper, emperor and grunter) fisheries, and supporting preservation of allied ecosystems from which these resources depend (July 2019-June 2023).

Sub objective 1. The application of proxies accepted as an appropriate stock assessment tool for the Indonesian groundfish fishery (July 2019-July 2024).

Sub objective 2. To develop a groundfish fishery harvest strategy (July 2019-Dec 2022)

Sub objective 3. to promote the ecosystem based approach to fisheries management (July 2019-Jan 2023)

Sub objective 4. Fishery specific management objectives applied with the support of a management plan (July 2019-Dec 2021).   

Sub objective 5. WPP decision making structure strengthened to ensure that it responds to fisheries specific requirements (July 2019-Dec 2022).

Sub objective 6. To strengthen compliance systems within the groundfish fishery (July 2019-Dec 2022)

Sub objective 7. Robust chain of custody system operational (July 19-June 2020)

FIP Type 
Comprehensive
FIP Stage 
Stage 4: Improvements in Fishing Practices or Fishery Management
Start and Projected End Dates
July 2019
June 2024
Next Progress Report Due 
Sunday, January 31, 2021
Species 
Common Name 
Goldband Snapper
Scientific Name
Pristipomoides multidens
Common Name 
Sharptooth Jobfish
Scientific Name
Pristipomoides typus
Common Name 
Rusty Jobfish
Scientific Name
Aphareus rutilans
Common Name 
Malabar Snapper
Scientific Name
Lutjanus malabaricus
Common Name 
Crimson Jobfish
Scientific Name
Pristipomoides filamentosus
Common Name 
Saddleback Snapper
Scientific Name
Paracaesio kusakarii
Common Name 
Crimson Snapper
Scientific Name
Lutjanus erythropterus
Common Name 
Flame Snapper
Scientific Name
Etelis coruscans
Common Name 
Areolate Grouper
Scientific Name
Epinephelus areolatus
Common Name 
Red Emperor
Scientific Name
Lutjanus sebae
Common Name 
Grass Emperor
Scientific Name
Lethrinus laticaudis
Common Name 
Blue-lined Emperor
Scientific Name
Gymnocranius grandoculis
Common Name 
Giant Ruby Snapper
Scientific Name
Etelis sp
Common Name 
Slender Pinjalo
Scientific Name
Pinjalo lewisi
Common Name 
Pale Snapper
Scientific Name
Etelis radiosis
Common Name 
Striped Grouper
Scientific Name
Epinephelus latifasciatus
Common Name 
Almaco Jack
Scientific Name
Seriola rivoliana
Common Name 
Green Jobfish
Scientific Name
Aprion virescens
Common Name 
Timor Snapper
Scientific Name
Lutjanus timorensis
Common Name 
Chinamanfish
Scientific Name
Symphorus nematophorus
Common Name 
Lavendar Jobfish
Scientific Name
Pristipomoides sieboldii
Common Name 
Cocoa Snapper
Scientific Name
Paracaesio stonei
Common Name 
Duskytail Grouper
Scientific Name
Epinephelus bleekeri
Common Name 
Mozambique Large-eye Bream
Scientific Name
Wattsia mossambica
Common Name 
Painted Sweetlip
Scientific Name
Diagramma pictum
Common Name 
Mangrove Red Snapper
Scientific Name
Lutjanus argentimaculatus
Common Name 
Red Bass
Scientific Name
Lutjanus bohar
Common Name 
Humpback Red Snapper
Scientific Name
Lutjanus gibbus
Common Name 
John's Snapper
Scientific Name
Lutjanus johnii
Common Name 
Russell's Snapper
Scientific Name
Lutjanus russelli
Common Name 
Brownstripe Red Snapper
Scientific Name
Lutjanus vitta
Common Name 
Moluccan Snapper
Scientific Name
Lutjanus boutton
Common Name 
Blubberlip Snapper
Scientific Name
Lutjanus rivulatus
Common Name 
Tang's Snapper
Scientific Name
Lipocheilus carnolabrum
Common Name 
Tomato Hind
Scientific Name
Cephalopholis sonnerati
Common Name 
Orange-Spotted Grouper
Scientific Name
Epinephelus coioides
Common Name 
Bridled Grouper
Scientific Name
Epinephelus heniocus
Common Name 
Dotted Grouper
Scientific Name
Epinephelus epistictus
Common Name 
Eightbar Grouper
Scientific Name
Hyporthodus octofasciatus
Common Name 
Bar-Cheeked Coral Trout
Scientific Name
Plectropomus maculatus
Common Name 
Leopard Grouper
Scientific Name
Plectropomus leopardus
Common Name 
White-edged Lyretail
Scientific Name
Variola albimarginata
Common Name 
Pink Ear Emperor
Scientific Name
Lethrinus lentjan
Common Name 
Spangled Emperor
Scientific Name
Lethrinus nebulosus
Common Name 
Longface Emperor
Scientific Name
Lethrinus olivaceus
Common Name 
Spotcheek Emperor
Scientific Name
Lethrinus rubrioperculatus
Common Name 
Longnose Trevally
Scientific Name
Carangoides chrysophrys
Common Name 
Bludger
Scientific Name
Carangoides gymnostethus
Common Name 
Bluespotted Trevally
Scientific Name
Caranx bucculentus
Common Name 
Giant Trevally
Scientific Name
Caranx ignobilis
Common Name 
Bigeye Trevally
Scientific Name
Caranx sexfasciatus
Common Name 
Tille Trevally
Scientific Name
Caranx tille
Common Name 
Rainbow Runner
Scientific Name
Elagatis bipinnulata
Common Name 
Japanese Rubyfish
Scientific Name
Erythrocles schlegelii
Common Name 
Slate Sweetlips
Scientific Name
Diagramma labiosum
Common Name 
Javelin Grunter
Scientific Name
Pomadasys kaakan
Common Name 
Bigeye Barracuda
Scientific Name
Sphyraena forsteri
Common Name 
Sawtooth Barracuda
Scientific Name
Sphyraena putnamae
Common Name 
Japanese Soldierfish
Scientific Name
Ostichthys japonicus
Common Name 
Blackspotted Croaker
Scientific Name
Protonibea diacanthus
Common Name 
Orange Croaker
Scientific Name
Atrobucca brevis
Gear Type 
Bottom Longline
Dropline
Gillnet
Pot/Trap
Location
FAO Major Fishing Area
Area 57 (Indian Ocean, Eastern)
Area 71 (Pacific, Western Central)
Exclusive Economic Zones
Country 
Indonesia
Country Flag of Vessel 
Indonesia
Landings
Estimated Total FIP Landings 
111,333 metric tons
Estimated Total Fishery Landings 
111,333 metric tons
Landings Date 
June 2020
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FIP at a Glance

32% 14% 54%
July 01, 2019
36% 18% 46%
Progress Rating

A - Advanced Progress
Reserved for comprehensive FIPs that have a Stage 4 or 5 result within the past 12 months.

B - Good Progress
A FIP that has achieved a Stage 4 or 5 in more than 12 months AND Stage 3 activity in the last year; OR a basic FIP that has achieved Stage 4 or 5 achievements within the past 12 months.

C - Some Recent Progress
A FIP that has achieved a Stage 4 or 5 result in more than 12 (but less than 24) months but has not generated a Stage 3 result within the past 12 months OR a FIP younger than a year that has never achieved a Stage 4 or 5 result but has completed a Stage 3 activity.

D - Some Past Progress
A FIP for which the most recent publicly reported Stage 4 or 5 result is more than 24 (but less than 30) months.

E - Negligible Progress
A FIP older than a year that has not reported a Stage 4 or 5 result in more than 30 month (but less than 36) months; OR a FIP younger than 1 year that has not reported a Stage 3 activity.

The ratings are currently derived by SFP from publicly available data on FIP websites, including FisheryProgress.org, and are determined using the following methodology: View PDF
A Advanced Progress
Actions Complete
  • Complete
  • Incomplete
Next Update Due FisheryProgress requires a FIP to provide update reports every six months, and two missed reports will render the FIP inactive. If a report is overdue, this date will appear red.
Jan 2021
Target End Date
Jun 2024
Some FIPs include objectives that go beyond the 28 indicators. Clicking on the links below will provide additional detail on other impacts the FIP is working to achieve.

FIP Leads

Organization Name 
The Nature Conservancy – Indonesia Fisheries Conservation Program
Organization Type 
NGO
Primary Contact 
Peter Mous
Email 
Phone 
61742042060
Organization Name 
Poseidon ARM PL
Organization Type 
Consultant
Primary Contact 
Richard Banks
Phone 
61742042060
FIP Identification Number The FIP Identification Number is automatically generated by FisheryProgress when a FIP profile is created. While the number itself is not meaningful, they are used by NGOs, academia, and industry to refer to FIPs in a consistent way.
8201