Industrial anchovy landings are used for indirect human consumption. Among the coastal pelagic species of the Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS), the Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens) is predominant and creates one of the most important single species fisheries worldwide. The NHCS is an important area of one of the most productive world marine ecosystems, the Humboldt Current Large Marine Ecosystem. The Humboldt Current extends along the coast of Chile and Peru; the NHCS corresponds to Peru.
In 1955, the first management measures of the Peruvian anchovy stock were implemented when a minimum catch size of 12 cm and a minimum mesh size were established. In the 1970s, new measures were drafted related to catch control by means of establishing annual global fishing quotas.
There are three fishing fleets targeting the Northern-Central stock of anchovy, which are as follows (including their fishing capacity): there is an artisanal fishing fleet of vessels of less than 10 m3 GRT; a small-scale fishing fleet of vessels of more than 10 m3 GRT and less than 32.6 m3 GRT; and an industrial fishing fleet of vessels larger than 32.6 m3. Only industrial landings are to be used to produce fishmeal.
Currently, the most important fishery management measures are:
- Total allowable catches
- Maximum Allowable Catch per Vessel (industrial fleet)
- Minimum catch size of 12 cm
- Minimum mesh size 13 mm – ½”
- Regulation of the fishing capacity or effort of fishing vessels
- Time and space closures for the protection of juveniles and the reproductive process
- Exclusion zone for industrial fishing up to 5 marine miles from the coast
- Establishing a maximum percentage of bycatch of other species, maximum 5% of the catch.
- Establishing a Surveillance and Control Program of Marine Fishing and Landing, as well as Satellite Follow Up.
Regarding research, the Peruvian fishery research institute (Instituto del Mar del Perú, IMARPE) dedicates significant financial and human resources to the follow-up and research of this fishery. It benefits from a large data flow, both regarding the Peruvian anchovy stock as well as the group of variables and impacts related to it. Also, during the last fifty years, industrial vessels have participated from activities related to fishing data collection.
At the time of drafting this report, the main issues regarding the sustainability of the fishery are:
- It is necessary to demonstrate that the fishery complies with the requirement of attending the needs of the ecosystem.
- It is required that harvest control rules in a low biomass scenario are more explicit, as well as the management objectives related to the ecosystem.
- It is necessary to address unreported fishing and illegal vessels, which represent a potential danger for the sustainability of the fishery.
- It is necessary to achieve a better understanding of the direct impacts of the Unit of Assessment on ETP species and habitats.
Industrial anchovy landings are used for indirect human consumption.
- To demonstrate that the management system considers the ecosystem needs by March 2019.
- To make improvements in the management system that would allow for explicit catch control rules in the case of low biomass, by March 2020.
- To organize the available data gathered by the industrial fishing vessels and encourage further technological innovation and development in order to allow for the assessment and monitoring of the ecosystem by March 2020.
- To make management improvements and actions to maximize the respect of management rules by the artisanal and small-scale fleet and to improve traceability, while contemplating any selectivity and technological innovation limitations by March 2020.
- Determining the direct impacts of the fleet on ETP species and other ecosystem components and, if necessary, devise proposals to mitigate them by March 2020.
- To achieve a certifiable status by March 2020.
FIP at a Glance